Beginning in the 1960s, détournement has been employed repeatedly as a strategy for calling into question government policy. Starting with the events of May 1968, when the public profile of the Situationists soared, the most basic target of left-wing activists has been government policy if not the government itself. In many cases it would seem that activist groups such as the Situationists have been ineffective in reaching short term political goals but successful in fomenting long term shifts in cultural attitudes. For example, the protests of May 1968 led to a powerful backlash, ending with the French public strongly reaffirming its support for the conservative policies of President Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970). However, in subsequent decades French society has progressed in ways that suggest that the long-term influence of the protesters has been substantial.